Multiple sclerosis: here are all the symptoms

Multiple sclerosis: here are all the symptoms

There multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by an atypical immune response against some components of the central nervous system that are mistaken for “enemies”. This autoimmune inflammatory process can worsen and cause damage myelini.e. the sheath that wraps around the nerve fibers, creating the demyelination.

In this article

How many types of multiple sclerosis are there?

Essentially there are fourfive if we also count the so-called benign:

  1. relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS),
  2. secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS),
  3. primary progressive (SM-PP)
  4. progressive multiple sclerosis with relapses.


Depending on the entity and location involved, they may occur various symptoms and it is not always easy to distinguish them from those related to other pathologies. This is because it can affect any area of ​​the central nervous system and therefore has clinical manifestations that vary from person to person. This disease mainly affects people between the ages of 30 and 40, but it affects them too Cases among young and old are increasing. When we talk about children up to the age of 17, we are talking about pediatric multiple sclerosis.

Here you can see and hear what it is most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis symptoms: what are the main manifestations?

visual disturbances

Visual disturbances are the most common symptoms of the disease. They can manifest themselves in different ways: by a decreased ability to concentrate To Changes in color perception. It can happen that one lives even temporarily vision loss. You can even suffer one splitting the view (called diplopia) or a nystagmusthis is a rhythmic, involuntary shaking of the eyes.

Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms: sensory disturbances

The most common symptoms include sensory disturbances. Most patients complain about the presence of needles and pins and sensations of Burning in lower limbs and other parts of body. You can have one too decreased touch sensitivity It is a widespread numbness in one or more limbs. The person may notice decreased sensitivity to touch, heat and cold, and pain.

reduction in muscle strength

Poor balance, instability and tremors are also common. Gait may become unsteady and you may experience dizziness and general muscle weakness.

Multiple sclerosis symptoms: dspeech disorders

Speech disorders are closely related to the previous symptom and are based on a lack of coordination of the tongue and the mouth and face muscles involved in the formation of sounds and words. Medically one speaks of speech articulation disorders dysarthria.

cognitive disorders

Cognitive disorders mainly affect Attention, memory, thinking and spatial perception skills.


Feeling of extreme tiredness, understood as Lack of energy and a feeling of “exhaustion” more than would normally be expected in relation to the amount of exercise being performed.

intestinal diseases

The most common problems are Constipation and fecal incontinence. In the former case there is difficulty in emptying the bowels, while in the latter case there is an inability to hold gas or stool without the patient noticing or voluntarily contracting the sphincters.

bladder disorders

Bladder diseases are also very common. They are irresistible in appearance must urinateaturinary incontinence with involuntary loss of urine and urinary retention with the presence of urine in the bladder after urination or in the absence of it.

sexual disorders

women can Loss of feeling in the genital areawhile men can have erection problems And early or no ejaculation.


Depression affects more patients with multiple sclerosis than those who are not ill or have other pathologies. It’s important to learn right away Coping with post-diagnosis stress.


Patients with multiple sclerosis often complain of severe pain in different parts of the body, but especially along the body the spine.

When multiple sclerosis is asymptomatic

Sometimes multiple sclerosis can be symptomless. They’re technically sick, but they don’t show the typical symptoms of the disease. Luigi Lavorgna, a neurologist from the Center for Multiple Sclerosis of the II University of Naples.

What are the causes of multiple sclerosis?

Unfortunately, the causes that lead to the development of multiple sclerosis are not yet known. Experts agree that it is an autoimmune disease. Demyelination, meaning the loss of myelindepends on an incorrect reaction of the immune system. Basically, our antibodies attack myelin as if it were a pathogen.

However, there are several risk factors. The most important are:

  • the genetic predisposition,
  • geographic origin: Caucasians are most at risk,
  • the climate: those who live in countries with a temperate climate are more at risk,
  • exposure to viruses and bacteria, especially when it occurs at a young age,
  • according to some studies low vitamin D levels.

Vaccinations in no way increase the risk of multiple sclerosis

For years, some blogs and even newspapers have been emphasizing how to do this Vaccination could be one of the causes of this disease. A comprehensive meta-analysis ruled out this possibility. There is no link between vaccinations and MS diagnoses.

Does mononucleosis increase your risk?

Several experts have linked a very common virus, such as that of mononucleosis the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. However, new studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms. The Epstein-Barr virus, the scientific name of the mononucleus, is extremely widespread in the world population.

How is multiple sclerosis diagnosed?

As soon as we understand that we are suffering from some symptoms of this disease, we should talk to our doctor immediately. Most likely, he will prescribe us a visit to a neurologist who specializes in this pathology. In addition to the visit, the doctor may decide to subject the patient to an examination some diagnostic tests.

What are the main therapies?

There is no definitive cure. However, science has made great strides. However, the mixture of some drugs manages to have a positive effect on the severity of the seizures and their frequency.

Two types of medication are generally prescribed:

A drug has recently come onto the market that acts directly on the patient’s immune system. Is called ozanimod and reduces relapses in the most common form of MS.

Scientific Research focuses on stem cells. However, there are many Trials with new drugs in the most important research centers in the world.

You study too Cannabis Medicines against some symptoms of multiple sclerosis. An important meta-analysis which has examined numerous research results on this topic, requires further in-depth work.

The importance of exercise in relieving symptoms of multiple sclerosis

Important to exerciseto be able to get better. Up until a few years ago, not enough emphasis was placed on the importance of physical activity. As therapies improve, people with MS have large spaces in which the disease does not progress. During these periods it is essential to practice sports according to your possibilities and state of health. The beneficial effects are manifold. On the one hand, the muscles are strengthened, on the other hand, coordination and balance are increased. On the other hand, regular and moderate physical activity lowers levels of inflammation, which instead provide the ideal habitat for disease progression. Most importantly, it also affects and stabilizes mood thanks to the release of serotonin and dopamine, two important neurotransmitters linked to mental well-being. The is particularly indicated Nordic walking, Walking with sticks that is able to move most of the muscles of the body without straining the back. However, there are many sports you can practice: Here are some tips for choosing the right path.

Is there the right diet to combat the symptoms of multiple sclerosis?

In addition to physical activity, diet also plays a crucial role in relieving symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Here you will find the advice of the nutritionist. In general, a varied diet with lots of vegetables and fruit is ideal. We need vitamins, mineral salts and antioxidants, of which these foods are particularly rich. Vitamin D plays a crucial role and we need to think about how best to get enough of it. We are also considering whether this is the case a calorie restriction can be helpful against the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Diet plays such a central role that it is believed that the Microbiome can be one of the causes of the disease.

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